Modal | Tenses

Modal’s are those helping verbs which tell about the mode of main verb.

CHARACTERISTIC’S
1-> They never change their form you can’t add “s” , “ing” , “ed” etc.

2-> They tell about actions – like

ABILITY PERMISSION POWER POSSIBILITY REQUEST WILLINGNESS

3-> They are always used with main verb.

4-> They are not effected by no of subject and gender.

Modal’s -: Can , Could , May , Might , Will , Shall , Would , Should

Extra -: Ought to , Used to , Dare
Use of modals -:
To Express-:
ABILITY
PERMISSION
OBLIGATION
PROHIBITION
LACK OF NECESSITY
ADVICE
POSSIBILITY
PROBABILITY

Can – Sakna

It is used to express-:
Ability , Opportunity , To Request , Offer Permission Possibility, Impossibility.
1-> I can ride horse -> Ability
2-> You can play outside -> Permission
3-> Can I take this pen -> Request

Rules-:
Sub + can + Ist form -> Simple
Sub + cannot + Ist form -> Negative
Can + sub + Ist form -> Interrogative
Can + sub + not + Ist form -> Interrogative + negative

Example’s -:

  • Main angregi pad sakta hu -> I can read English.
  • Vah daud nahi sakta h -> He cannot run.
  • kya waha abineta ban sakta h? -> Can he become an actor ?
  • kya main tumari kitabh nahi le sakta hu? -> Can I not take your book?

Could – Past of can
Saka , Sakte the , Saka tha
It is used to express-:
ABILITY , POWER , REQUEST , PERMISSION , POSSIBILITY , IMPOSIBILITY , OPPORTUNITY
1-> he could sing well – Ability
2-> I could buy that watch – Possibility

Rules-:
Sub + could + Ist form – Simple
Sub + could + not + Ist form – Negative
Could + sub + Ist form – Interrogative
Could + sub + not + Ist form – Interrogative + negative

Example’s -:

  • Main angreze pad saka -> could study english.
  • Vah daud nahi saka -> He could not run.
  • kya vah abhineta ban saka? -> Could he become an actor?
  • kya ve nahi pahuch sake? -> Could they not reach?
  • Main pahuch saka -> I could reach.
  • Hum uske sath angezi bol sake -> We could speak English with him.

May – Sakna
It is used to express-:
PERMISSION , POSSIBILITY , PURPOSE , WISH OR PRAYER

1-> May I come in – permission
2-> We eat so we may live – purpose
3-> May you live long – wish

Rules-:
Sub + may + Ist form – Simple
Sub + may + not + Ist form – Negative
May + sub + Ist form – Interrogative
May + sub + not + Ist form – Interrogative + negative

Example’s-:

  • Tum ab beth sakte ho – You may sit now.
  • Tum ghar nahi ja sakte ho -> You may not go home.
  • kya main andar ah sakta ho? -> May I come in?

Might – Shayad – Sakna
Past of may – ska
It is used to express-:
POSSIBILITY , PURPOSE , POSSIBILITY , PERMISSION
1-> She worked hard so that she might pass.
2-> The sky clear but it might rain.

Rules-:
Sub + might + Ist form – Simple
Sub + might + not + Ist form – Negative
Might + sub + Ist form – Interrogative
Might + sub + not + Ist form – Interrogative + negative

Example’s-:

  • Main aaj ah sakta hu -> I might come today.
  • Shayad mujhe aaj deri nahi ho sakti hai -> I might not get late today.
  • kya shayad aaj varsa ho sakti hai? -> Might it rain today?

Will – Ga Gi Ge
It is used with-:
He , she , it , name , you , they
BUT INCREASE LIKE-:
PROMISE , WILLINGNESS , THREAT , DETERMINATION , CERTAINTY
It is used with-:
I , WE
Rules-:
Sub + will + Ist form – Simple
Sub + will + not + Ist form – Negative
Will + sub + Ist form – Interrogative
Will + sub + not + Ist form – Interrogative + Negative

Example’s-:

  • Vah khelega -> He will play.
  • Ramesh kal delhi jayega -> Ramesh will go to delhi tomorrow.
  • Ve khaana nahi khayenge -> They will not eat food.
  • kya tum ye karoge? -> Will you do it?
  • kya vah nahi padegi? -> Will she not study?

Shall – Ga Gi Ge
It is used with -: I , WE
But in cases like-:
PROMISES , COMMAND , WARNING , DETERMINATION , WILLINGNESS
It is used with-:
He , she , it , name , you , they.
Shall is used , Ask question to know other’s will and to work as per other’s will.

Rules-:
Sub + shall + Ist form – Simple
Sub + shall + not + Ist form – Negative
Shall + sub + Ist form – Interrogative
Shall + sub + not + Ist form – Interrogative + Negative

Example’s-:

  • Main delhi jahunga -> Shall go delhi.
  • Hum kal nahi melenge -> We shall not meet tomorrow.
  • kya hum terenge? -> Shall we swim?
  • kya hum tv nahi dekhege? -> Shall we not watch tv?
  • Vah kuch nahi bolega -> He shall not say anything.

Would – Ta hoga , Ti hogi , Te honge
Past of will
It is used to express-:
PAST HABIT , POLITE REQUEST INDIRECT SPEECH (PAST OF FUTURE)
UNREAL CONDITION
Rules-:
Sub + would + Ist form
Sub + would + not + Ist form
Would + sub + Ist form
Would + sub + not + Ist form

Example’s-:

  • Aap mehnat karte honge -> You would work hard.
  • Ram use janta hoga -> Ram would know him.
  • Vah dva leta hoga -> He would take medicine.
  • Aap yeh kaam nahi karte honge -> You would not do this work.
  • kya ve vaha roj jaate honge -> Would they go there daily.

Should – Chayiye / na Chayiye
Past of shall
Its is used to express-:
Future in past , DUTY , ADVICE , SUGGESTION , INFERENCE
RULES-:
Sub + should + Ist form – Simple
Sub + should + not + Ist form – Negative
Should + sub + Ist form – Interrogative
Should + sub + not + Ist form + Interrogative + Negative

Example’s-:

  • Apko padna chayiye -> you should study.
  • Mujhe vaha jana chayiye -> I should go there.
  • Hume yeh nahi karna chayiye -> We should not do this.
  • kya une mehnat karni chayiye? -> Should they work hard?
  • kya usko bahar ka nahi khana chayiye? -> Should he not eat outside?

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